Archives for category: Research

In my current role I’ve spent the last 5 years getting usability and User Experience (UX) principles and methods embedded in the organisation. It’s been hard work and there have been lots of small victories and battles on the way. We’ve progressed from an annual usability survey to having a dedicated UX Architect role and standardised methods and tools. I spoke about our journey at a Software East event earlier this year.

I’ll soon be starting a new role as a UX specialist with a private sector company that has a strong committment to UX. So I’ve been reflecting a lot in the last few weeks about the process of getting UX adopted, and then embedding UX thinking and practise in an organisation.

Whilst we didn’t get as far as having a UX strategy, these are the main lessons I’ve learned in 5 years:

You’ll need a committed UX champion

For me personally it was really important to have a very strong interest and commitment to UX, in order to evangelise the benefits to the team and my manager every day. I was lucky to be well supported by my Manager and Director. The whole of our Web team are now committed to using UX methods and tools on all projects. Their interest and enthusiasm never ceases to amaze me!

However, it’s not always an easy sell. I work in a very large and complex, public sector organisation (local government). Even afer 5 years I regularly find myself having conversations with colleagues who don’t understand what UX or usability is and why it’s important to understand (and design for) customer needs and behaviour.

It’s all about the data

Using data to evidence and support design decisions has been crucial. I can think of many times when user data has helped support an argument. But make sure you present your data in a compelling way, using graphs, visualisations like word clouds (hat tip to Craig for showing us that one), screenshots and video/audio clips where possible.

Develop skills and create a UX toolkit

Mentoring team members and establishing a toolkit of standardised UX methods and tools has been important. We have very little budget, so we rely on low cost methods such as expert reviews, prototyping, and remote research tools and web analytics. When we managed to create a dedicated UX role, the first thing I asked the UX Architect we recruited internally to do was to research and create a UX toolkit. This was important not only to provide a re-usable set of tools and techniques, but also as a development exercise, to help the UX Architect get up to speed with what techniques to use and when and how to use them.

Although we can’t afford much training, books have been incredibly useful to us. They are relatively inexpensive and can go round the whole team. We have built up a useful library of UX books that inspire us and act as a good reference point.

Sketch and prototype, but keep it Agile and collaborative

I think we fell into the trap early on of trying to produce fancy looking wireframes and mockups. Prototypes were created in HTML/CSS to make them production ready. But given that we used the Scrum method, we could have produced a lot more design ideas and got solutions in place quicker during sprints by doing more sketching.

Measure and improve

Measurement of UX is probably the one thing we didn’t pay enough attention to initially. But measurement is extremely important if you are going to prove return on investment.

Process, tools and skills are all useful. But, they are really not that useful if you can”t demonstrate how you’ve improved a website or product. And Senior Managers don’t tend to be that bothered about the ‘how’, they’re more interested in the ‘what’. So make sure you have clear metrics defined to ensure UX improvements are tangible and measurable.

Aim to make small, iterative improvements

Ultimately we were never able to make many of the improvements to our website we wanted to, due to various constraints on resources. And being stuck with a legacy CMS system that was pretty inflexible.

There will always be many ideas and re-design work that customers never see and experience. So avoid too much wastage in the design process by concentrating on things you can realistically implement and use the evidence to make the business case for bigger improvements.

I’m very excited to have the opportunity to talk about embedding UX in a large organisation at UX Cambridge on 10 November. But I’d like to learn about other peoples’ experiences before my talk and gather some stories from out in the field.

I’m running a survey to find out more about UX adoption in large organisations until 28 October. By large I mean over 250 employees. But I’m keen to get responses from a variety of organisations, big or small, so don’t let that put you off completing it.

Please do take 5-10 minutes to complete the survey. I’ll publish the results here once I have done some data analysis. Thanks!

Complete my UX adoption survey

I’m very grateful to Human Factors International for letting me use their UX Maturity checklist for a number of the questions in the survey.

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I’ve talked about my MSc dissertation research before on this blog. In fact I originally set up this blog to explore some topics related to my research. Having had a bit of a break after completing my dissertation in August 2010, I have decided to publish it here, spurred on by the kind words of a fellow academic researcher Catherine Howe.

My research question was:

How do the attitudes and perceptions of citizens, Council officers, Councillors to the use of social media for community engagement compare and contrast?

My Master’s Degree was in Human Computer Interaction. If you have a particular interest in research into social media and civic engagement (and quite a bit of time on your hands), I’d recommend the full dissertation (PDF, 2.4 mb).

But if you are a local government officer or someone with less time and patience, then I’d recommend the 10 page (that’s the smallest I could manage!) Executive Summary (PDF, 50kb).

I also wanted to add a little disclaimer. The primary research data was gathered from semi-structured interviews with 18 participants. For purposes of confidentiality the data is not included within either document. Because the research question focused on a relatively new research area, it was challenging to find participants with significant experience of using social media, let alone those with experience of using social media for civic engagement. Whilst the collection and analysis of data followed rigorous qualitative research methods, the quality of the data collected was not as high as I had hoped for. I would therefore advise some caution in the interpretation and application of these research findings.

Please note that the usual Creative Commons copyright license I display on this blog does not apply to the two documents linked above.

You can find me on Twitter if you have any questions, comments, or would like more information about my research.

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I’ve finally finished my MSc dissertation which is a massive relief. After four years of part-time study I am looking forward to having my weekends back! And I plan to get back to blogging, now that I’ve more time on my hands.

My research study investigated:

Attitudes and perceptions of Council officers and citizens to using social media to engage with local government.

My research was driven from a human-computer interaction (HCI) perspective, as I’ve been studying HCI and Ergonomics at UCLIC.

Read the rest of this entry »

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For anyone that’s familiar with my posts on social media or usability this one is rather academic and self-indulgent, so bear with me!

I’m making fairly good progress with my MSc research, having completed a few interviews and some of my literature review. Every so often I take stock of the approach I’m taking and re-evaluate my research question and approach. I decided that writing about the issues I come across would be a good form of therapy and also a good way to reflect on my situation and decisions.

“[We] become reflective researchers in situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and conflict.”
Donald Schön, The Reflective Practitioner, 1983

I have chosen to research attitudes and perceptions of council officers and citizens to community engagement via social media. Because this is a potentially vast and complex area I have chosen to focus my research around a project I am working on in Fenland, Cambridgeshire. I decided to limit my research to council officers and citizens. Because within the scope of an MSc project I didn’t have sufficient capacity or time to also interview colleagues working in the Police and Fire services or elected members.

Because there is not much existing research or theory in this area of investigation, I’ve chosen to use a Grounded Theory method (Glaser and Strauss, 1967; Corbin and Strauss, 1990; Charmaz, 2006) . I’m carrying out semi-structured interviews to collect my data. Once I have transcribed the interviews I am carrying out a detailed analysis of the data to identify emergent concepts or themes. As I identify concepts I start to categorise them and compare them across all the data. As the process continues I am starting to develop theories which I can in turn test out by collecting and analysing more data. And so on until saturation point, or until I need to write up my dissertation and hand it in. Whichever comes first.

So far I’ve interviewed four colleagues and am lining up several more interviews. My sample is probably what you would describe as ‘selective’ rather than ‘representative’ or ‘purposeful’ (Coyne, 1997). Simply because of the constraints of doing research within your own organisation and in the timescales of an MSc.

I’ve encountered a few issues with the approach and method I’m taking so far. Using social media for community engagement is a new phenomenon, certainly within the organisation I work for. The colleagues I have interviewed so far do not have hands on experience of using social media for community engagement. So their stated intentions may well not reflect their actual behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980).

Now for me using social media has been experiential. I personally believe that you can’t really understand the possibilities and impact of the social web without experiencing it yourself. Hence the JFDI mantra which is so often mentioned by those who are active in the local social media or digital engagement field (see Dan Slee, Sarah LayDave Briggs and Steph Gray to mention a few). To get round this I have shown my participants a range of sites which I feel represent how social media can be (and is being) used for community engagement.

Whilst initially I found it problematic that I was not interviewing participants about their actual behaviour and experiences, I feel there is still merit in my research approach. Many local authorities have been reluctant to adopt social media. Some are blocking staff access for fear of time wasting or the risks of security breaches or damage to reputation (Socitm, 2010). Other authorities are cautious of the benefits of allocating resource time to monitor social media spaces and interact with citizens.

By researching the attitudes and perceptions of authorities and citizens I hope to gain a better understanding of perceived barriers, threats and opportunities of using social media for community engagement. I hope my findings can be shared with other authorities, organisations and researchers. I am also hoping my research could be a useful reference to anyone researching attitudes and perceptions of council officers and citizens who are actively using social media for community engagement.

At this point in time I don’t want to have too many lofty ideas about the impact of my tiny microcosm of research. But even as a student researcher I have to consider the value of my research to my employer and the wider research community.

I’ve also had concerns about interviewing colleagues who are unlikely to be using social media in a very hands on way for community engagement. This is primarily because they are at a more strategic level and not what you would describe as ‘front-line’ staff. But in reality they are quite likely to be the people who make the policy level decisions about how social media is used and incorporated within community engagement activities. So understanding more about perceptions and attitudes is important, to be able to sell the benefits and persuade senior managers to take risks and innovate.

So far the data I’ve collected has been fascinating and has led me to reflect on how we are approaching our project in Fenland. I’m really looking forward to interviewing some residents in Wisbech in the next couple of months to get their perspective.

References:

Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Prentice Hall, facsimile edition.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. Sage Publications Ltd, 1 edition.

Corbin, J. and Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. SAGE Inc, third edition edition.

Coyne, I. T. (2007). Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundaries? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 623–630, Blackwell Science Ltd.

Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine Transaction.

Schon, D. A. (1984). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action. Basic Books, 1 edition.

Socitm (2010). Social media – why ICT management should lead their organisations to embrace it.

Social media – why ICT management should lead their organisations to embrace it

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So here I am. I finally got round to starting a blog after finishing my MSc modules in May 2009. For the last 3 years I’ve been studying a part-time MSc in Human Computer Interaction whilst working full-time, so spare time has been in short supply!

Over the next year I’ll be working on my MSc research project which is closely related to my day job as Web Development Manager in local government.

I’m hoping that I can use this space to explore some thoughts and ideas on gov 2.0, social media, online engagement, user centred design and participatory design.

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